There are many rituals and beliefs associated with basil. Basil is sometimes referred to in French as "l'herbe royale" ('the royal herb'), while Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting. In Portugal, dwarf bush basil is traditionally presented in a pot, together with a poem and a paper carnation, to a sweetheart, on the religious holidays of John the Baptist (see Saint John's Eve § Portugal) and Saint Anthony of Padua. Conversely, basil represented hatred in ancient Greece.
In Hinduism, basil is placed in the hands of the dead to ensure a safe journey.[better source needed] In India,[clarification needed] basil is placed in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed basil would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.
In Giovanni Boccaccio's 14th century Decameron, the fifth story of the narrative's fourth day involves a pot of basil as a central plot device. This famous story inspired John Keats to write his 1814 poem "Isabella, or the Pot of Basil", which was in turn the inspiration for two paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood: John Everett Millais's Isabella in 1849 and in 1868 the Isabella and the Pot of Basil by William Holman Hunt.[