Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, Unani, and the animistic rituals of Austronesian peoples. It was first used as a dye, and then later for its supposed properties in folk medicine.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Turmeric" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods. It is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf, then closing and steaming it in a special utensil (chondrõ). Most turmeric is used in the form of rhizome powder to impart a golden yellow color. It is used in many products such as canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, cereals, sauces, and gelatin. It is a principal ingredient in curry powders. Although typically used in its dried, powdered form, turmeric also is used fresh, like ginger. It has numerous uses in East Asian recipes, such as pickle that contains large chunks of soft turmeric, made from fresh turmeric.
Turmeric is used widely as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Various Iranian khoresh dishes are started using onions caramelized in oil and turmeric, followed by other ingredients. The Moroccan spice mix ras el hanout typically includes turmeric. In South Africa, turmeric is used to give boiled white rice a golden color, known as geelrys (yellow rice) traditionally served with bobotie. In Vietnamese cuisine, turmeric powder is used to color and enhance the flavors of certain dishes, such as bánh xèo, bánh khọt, and mi quang. The staple Cambodian curry paste, kroeung, used in many dishes including amok, typically contains fresh turmeric. In Indonesia, turmeric leaves are used for Minang or Padang curry base of Sumatra, such as rendang, sate padang, and many other varieties. In Thailand, fresh turmeric rhizomes are used widely in many dishes, in particular in the southern Thai cuisine, such as yellow curry and turmeric soup. Turmeric is used in a hot drink called "turmeric latte" or "golden milk" that is made with milk, frequently coconut milk. The turmeric milk drink known as haldi doodh (haldi means turmeric in Hindi) is a South Asian recipe. Sold in the US and UK, the drink known as "golden mylk" uses nondairy milk and sweetener, and sometimes black pepper after the traditional recipe (which may also use ghee).
The bright yellow color of turmeric is due to curcumin. It also contains an orange-colored volatile oil. Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast, but is commonly used in Indian clothing, such as saris and Buddhist monks's robes. It is used to protect food products from sunlight (coded as E100 when used as a food additive). The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. A curcumin and polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Overcoloring, such as in pickles, relishes, and mustard, is sometimes used to compensate for fading.
In combination with annatto (E160b), turmeric has been used to color cheeses, yogurt, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine. Turmeric also is used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broths, and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).
Turmeric paper, also called curcuma paper or in German literature, Curcumapapier, is paper steeped in a tincture of turmeric and allowed to dry. It is used in chemical analysis as an indicator for acidity and alkalinity. The paper is yellow in acidic and neutral solutions and turns brown to reddish-brown in alkaline solutions, with transition between pH of 7.4 and 9.2.
In Eastern India, the plant is used as one of the nine components of navapatrika along with young plantain or banana plant, taro leaves, barley (jayanti), wood apple(bilva), pomegranate (darimba), asoka, manaka (Arum), or manakochu, and rice paddy. The Haldi ceremony (called gaye holud in Bengal) (literally "yellow on the body") is a ceremony observed during Hindu and South Asian Muslim wedding celebrations in many parts of India, including Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, and Gujarat, and in Pakistan.
In Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, as a part of the Tamil–Telugu marriage ritual, dried turmeric tuber tied with string is used to create a Thali necklace, the equivalent of marriage rings in western cultures. In western and coastal India, during weddings of the Marathi and Konkani people, Kannada Brahmins, turmeric tubers are tied with strings by the couple to their wrists during a ceremony, Kankanabandhana.
Friedrich Ratzel reported in The History of Mankind during 1896, that in Micronesia, turmeric powder was applied for embellishment of body, clothing, utensils, and ceremonial uses.
As turmeric and other spices are commonly sold by weight, the potential exists for powders of toxic, cheaper agents with a similar color to be added, such as lead(II,IV) oxide, giving turmeric an orange-red color instead of its native gold-yellow. Another common adulterant in turmeric, metanil yellow (also known as acid yellow 36), is considered an illegal dye for use in foods by the British Food Standards Agency.
See also: Curcumin
Turmeric and curcumin, one of its constituents, have been studied in numerous clinical trials for various human diseases and conditions, but the conclusions have either been uncertain or negative. Claims that curcumin in turmeric may help to reduce inflammation remain unproven as of 2017.
^ "Curcuma longa L." Plants of the World Online, Kew Science, Kew Gardens, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
^ "Turmeric (pronunciation)". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2015.
^ Priyadarsini, KI (2014). "The chemistry of curcumin: from extraction to therapeutic agent". Molecules. 19 (12): 20091–112. doi:10.3390/molecules191220091. PMID 25470276.
^ "Turmeric processing". Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India. 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
^ Jump up to:a b c d "Turmeric". Drugs.com. 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
^ Jump up to:a b c d Brennan, J (15 October 2008). "Turmeric". Lifestyle. The National. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^ Peter, K. V. (2008). Underutilized and Underexploited Horticultural Crops, Volume 2. New India Publishing. p. 341. ISBN 9788189422691. Retrieved 6 November2018.
^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Nelson, KM; Dahlin, JL; Bisson, J; et al. (2017). "The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin: Miniperspective". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 60 (5): 1620–1637. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975. PMC 5346970. PMID 28074653. None of these studies [has] yet led to the approval of curcumin, curcuminoids, or turmeric as a therapeutic for any disease
^ Jump up to:a b "Turmeric". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). March 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
^ Chattopadhyay I, Kaushik B, Uday B, Ranajit KB (2004). "Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications" (PDF). Current Science. 87 (1): 44–53. ISSN 0011-3891. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
^ Jump up to:a b Kikusawa, Ritsuko; Reid, Lawrence A. (2007). "Proto who utilized turmeric, and how?". In Siegel, Jeff; Lynch, John; Eades, Diana (eds.). Language Description, History and Development: Linguistic indulgence in memory of Terry Crowley(PDF). John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 339–352. ISBN 9789027292940.
^ Jump up to:a b McClatchey, W. (1993). "Traditional use of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) in Rotuma". Economic Botany. 47 (3): 291–296. doi:10.1007/bf02862297.
^ "Herbs at a Glance: Turmeric, Science & Safety". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health. 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
^ LEONG-ŠKORNIČKOVÁ, JANA; ŠÍDA, OTAKAR; WIJESUNDARA, SIRIL; MARHOLD, KAROL (May 2008). "On the identity of turmeric: the typification of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 157 (1): 37–46. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00788.x.
^ Nair, K.P. Prabhakaran (2013). The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger: The Invaluable Medicinal Spice Crops. Newnes. pp. 7–10. ISBN 9780123948243.
^ "Turmeric". Unabridged Random House Dictionary. Dictionary.com. 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
^ Tawney, C. H. (1924). The Ocean of Story, chapter 104. p. 13.
^ Grieve, M. "Turmeric". botanical.com. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
^ "Curcuma longa Linn". efloras.org. Flora of China, South China Botanical Garden. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
^ Siewek, F (2013). Exotische Gewürze Herkunft Verwendung Inhaltsstoffe (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-0348-5239-5.
^ "Kurkuma kaufen in Ihrem" (in German). Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
^ Hänsel, Rudolf; Keller, Konstantin; Rimpler, Horst; Schneider, Gerhard, eds. (2013). Drogen A-D (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 1085. ISBN 978-3-642-58087-1.
^ Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL (2006). "Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders". Nutr Cancer. 55 (2): 126–131. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5502_2. PMID 17044766.
^ Hong, SL; Lee, G. S; Syed Abdul Rahman, SN; Ahmed Hamdi, OA; Awang, K; Aznam Nugroho, N; Abd Malek, SN (2014). "Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome ofCurcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines". The Scientific World Journal. 2014: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2014/397430. PMC 4142718. PMID 25177723.
^ Hu, Y; Kong, W; Yang, X; Xie, L; Wen, J; Yang, M (2014). "GC-MS combined with chemometric techniques for the quality control and original discrimination of Curcumae longae rhizome: Analysis of essential oils". Journal of Separation Science. 37 (4): 404–11. doi:10.1002/jssc.201301102. PMID 24311554.
^ Braga, ME; Leal, PF; Carvalho, JE; Meireles, MA (2003). "Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51(22): 6604–11. doi:10.1021/jf0345550. PMID 14558784.
^ Pereira Kamat, M (16 August 2008), "A tradition wrapped in leaves", The Times of India, Goa, India, retrieved 16 August 2017
^ Jump up to:a b Imtiaz, Sabia (11 May 2016). "Turmeric latte: the 'golden milk' with a cult following". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
^ "The Chemistry of Turmeric – Fluorescence, Indicator, and Health Effects".
^ Jump up to:a b "E100: Curcumin". UKfoodguide.net. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
^ NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers (2006). Complete book on spices & condiments : (with cultivation, Processing & uses). Delhi: Asia Pacific Business Press. pp. 188–191. ISBN 9788178330389.
^ Ravindran, P. N., ed. (2007). The genus Curcuma. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis. p. 244. ISBN 9781420006322.
^ Berger, S; Sicker, D (2009). Classics in Spectroscopy. Wiley & Sons. p. 208. ISBN 978-3-527-32516-0.
^ "A Bangladeshi Wedding Journal – Gaye Holud: Pre-Wedding Ceremony". The Daily Star. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
^ Singh K, S; Bhanu, BV (2004). People of India: Maharashtra, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan. p. 487. ISBN 9788179911006.
^ Ratzel, Friedrich (1896). The History of Mankind. London: MacMillan.
^ "Detention without physical examination of turmeric due to lead contamination". FDA.gov. US Food and Drug Administration. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ "Producing and distributing food – guidance: Chemicals in food: safety controls; Sudan dyes and industrial dyes not permitted in food". gov.uk. Food Standards Agency, UK Government. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
^ Daily, JW; Yang, M; Park, S (2016). "Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". Journal of Medicinal Food. 19 (8): 717–29. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705. PMC 5003001. PMID 27533649.
^ Vaughn, A. R.; Branum, A; Sivamani, RK (2016). "Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence". Phytotherapy Research. 30 (8): 1243–64. doi:10.1002/ptr.5640. PMID 27213821.
Boesenbergia rotunda, commonly known as Chinese keys, fingerroot, lesser galangal or Chinese ginger, is a medicinal and culinary herb from China and Southeast Asia. In English, the root has traditionally been called fingerroot, because the shape of the rhizome resembles that of fingers growing out of a center piece.
เจียวกู่หลาน หรือ สมุนไพรปัญจขันธ์ชาเจียวกู่หลาน มีสรรพคุณเป็นยาอายุวัฒนะ ช่วยชะลอความแก่ การรับประทานเจียวกู่หลานครั้งละ 2 เม็ด วันละ 3 ครั้ง เป็นระยะเวลา 60 วัน จากคนที่เข้ารับการรักษาจำนวน 1-6 คน พบว่า คนที่เข้ารับการรักษาร่างกายทุกคนแข็งแรงดีขึ้น ความจำฟื้นคืนปกติ อาการนอนไม่หลับและอาการปวดหลังปวดเอวหายไป
Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity. Cissus has been used in various Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons. In siddha medicine it is considered a tonic and analgesic, and is believed to help heal broken bones, thus its name asthisamharaka (that which prevents the destruction of bones). The Assamese people and the Garo tribe of Meghalaya and Bangladesh have used C. quadrangularis for bone fracture.
Mentha (bai saranae) This mint is similar to the mint used for mint sauce in England and is used in Thai food as a vegetable and a flavoring.